By Elif Çalışkan
Cognition refers to all types of knowledge and awareness, such as perceiving, remembering, conceiving, reasoning, imagining, and problem-solving (APA, 2020). Meanwhile, cognitive dissonance is a theory that mentions people tend to reduce their dissonance caused by conflicting or inconsistent attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors often by seeking harmony (Zental, 2010). Also, it helps to deal with their stress and regrets, they can feel relaxed in a conflicting context. In this article, we will explain 3 initial dissonance-reduction strategies which social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957) showed.