What is emotional intelligence?

The term, coined by researchers Peter Salloway and John Mayer in 1990, spread in 1996 from Daniel Goldman’s book entitled Emotional intelligence, why it can matter more than IQ.

This book describes EI as the capacity of the human brain to recognize feelings, both ours and others. It helps to motivate ourselves, and to manage emotions effectively in ourselves and others.

Additionally, we can also talk about emotional competence, the learnt capacity based on emotional intelligence that contributes to effective performance at work.

Therefore, EI refers to the ability to identify and manage own emotions as others. We show in the following paragraph the two theories regarding EI: Salloway and Mayer model and Daniel Goldman model.

1. Salloway and Mayor theory

Regarding this theory, it concerns four branches:

  • Perceiving emotions, the identification of emotions in oneself and others;
  • Emotional facilitation of thought, the use of emotions to guide our beliefs and judgments;
  • Understanding and analysis of Emotion, identification of emotions and understanding the complexity of inter and intra-personal emotions;
  • Reflective regulation of emotions, the ability to observe and manage emotions.

2. Daniel Goldman theory

The author divides EI into personal and social competencies, containing a wide range of skills involved. I’ll briefly show them in the following paragraphs.

Among personal skills, we can find self-awareness, the ability to recognize one’s own emotions and their effect on others. Typically, this skill requires good introspection and sensibility. Also, there’s self-regulation, the ability to control emotions and think before acting. It is a very efficient skill when well used, and it is necessary to develop it, mainly when handling business situations. At last, motivation, the zeal to pursue goals with energy and persistence. 

Concerning the social competencies previously cited, the significant one to mention is empathy. It’s the ability to understand how other people feel in different contexts, allowing us to create social relationships that last in time. 

Based on this EI’s theory, we can evidence five essential elements, which are:

  1. Recognizing understanding and managing the emotions of oneself and others.
  2. Expressing our thoughts.
  3. Developing and maintaining social relationships.
  4. Coping with challenges.
  5. Using emotional information in an effective and meaningful way.


To summarize, there are so many questions like

  • What is EI, how can it be developed in people?
  • How does it help an individual in making ethical decisions?
  • How will you apply EI in administrative practices?

EI is the competence to make your emotions work for you instead of against you.


“Peter Salloway” and “John Mayer” https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Emotional_Intelligence/YVKmxr_D7yQC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=Emotional+Intelligence&pg=SL19-PA81&printsec=frontcover

Daniel Goldman’s theory.